Hard Water

Hard water is water that has high mineral content, formed when water percolates through geological deposits such as limestone, chalk or gypsum which are largely made up of calcium and magnesium carbonates, bicarbonates and sulfates. Iron oxides or iron carbonates can give a reddish brown colouration to hard water deposits.

Problems Caused by Hard Water

Hard water not only tastes bad, it causes a variety of problems and leads to the buildup of limescale which can harm plumbing and promote corrosion. Hard water can pose critical problems in industrial and commercial settings where water hardness should be monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in equipment.

Wherever water hardness is a concern, water softening is commonly used to reduce hard water’s adverse effects. Customers concerned about limescale buildup on valuable equipment can benefit from a softening system to remove the calcium and magnesium ions. Softening does not lower TDS (total dissolved solids) and is recommended for high-efficiency reverse osmosis (RO) systems and as a pre-treatment for filtration and other reverse osmosis systems.

High mineral content is formed when water percolates through geological deposits.

Hard Water Classification

A single number scale does not adequately describe hardness because it is a mixture of minerals dissolved in the water and the water’s pH and temperature. Two of the classifications used by the United States Geological Survey to classify water hardness are Hardness in Grains Per Gallon (GPG) and Hardness in Parts Per Million (PPM).

ClassificationHardness in GPGHardness in PPM
Moderately Hard3.56-7.0161-120
Very Hard≥10.57≥181

Water Hardness in the United States

A collection of data from the United States found that about half the water stations tested had hardness in the hard or very hard categories. The other half were classified as soft or moderately hard. These classifications are general and represent a fixed moment in time. Due to many factors water source quality fluctuates daily.

In California the Aqueduct that carries precious water up and down the state is constructed of concrete which contributes to increased levels of limescale build-up.

Protect Your Business from Hard Water Problems

At Sierra Filtration Services we know that figuring out the quality of the water supply you have and how to improve it is confusing. Let us help you with a thorough water analysis and custom water solution designed for your business. Call us at 1-800-951-FILTER (3458) today.

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